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Nature. 2003 Jul 3;424(6944):50-3.

Achromatic Fresnel optics for wideband extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray imaging.

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  • 1Xradia, Inc., 4075A Sprig Drive, Concord, California 94520, USA.


Advances in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray optics are providing powerful new capabilities in high-resolution imaging and trace-element analysis of microscopic specimens, and the potential for fabricating devices of smaller critical dimensions in next-generation integrated circuit lithography. However, achieving the highest resolution with such optics usually requires the illuminating EUV or X-ray beam to be highly monochromatic. It would therefore be highly desirable to have large-field-of-view, sub-100-nm resolution optics that are achromatic to a significant degree, allowing more light to be utilized from broader bandwidth sources such as laser-produced plasmas. Here we report an achromatic Fresnel optical system for EUV or X-ray radiation that combines a Fresnel zone plate with a refractive lens with opposite chromatic aberration. We use the large anomalous dispersion property of the refractive lens material near an absorption edge to make its fabrication practical. The resulting structure can deliver a resolution comparable to that of the Fresnel zone plates that have achieved the highest resolution (25 nm; ref. 3) in the entire electromagnetic spectrum, but with an improvement of two or more orders of magnitude in spectral bandwidth.

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