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Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1671-82.

PIE1, an ISWI family gene, is required for FLC activation and floral repression in Arabidopsis.

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Department of Biochemistry, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1544, USA.


Proper control of the floral transition is critical for reproductive success in flowering plants. In Arabidopsis, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a floral repressor upon which multiple floral regulatory pathways converge. Mutations in PHOTOPERIOD-INDEPENDENT EARLY FLOWERING1 (PIE1) suppress the FLC-mediated delay of flowering as a result of the presence of FRIGIDA or of mutations in autonomous pathway genes. PIE1 is required for high levels of FLC expression in the shoot apex, but it is not required for FLC expression in roots. PIE1 is similar to ATP-dependent, chromatin-remodeling proteins of the ISWI and SWI2/SNF2 family. The role of PIE1 as an activator of FLC is consistent with the general role of ISWI and SWI2/SNF2 family genes as activators of gene expression. The pie1 mutation also causes early flowering in noninductive photoperiods independently of FLC; thus, PIE1 appears to be involved in multiple flowering pathways. PIE1 also plays a role in petal development, as revealed by the suppression of petal defects of the curly leaf mutant by the pie1 mutation.

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