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J Endotoxin Res. 2003;9(3):169-75.

TLR2 and TLR4 agonists stimulate unique repertoires of host resistance genes in murine macrophages: interferon-beta-dependent signaling in TLR4-mediated responses.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, 655 W. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.


That TLRs share a common MyD88-dependent signaling pathway which results in the generation of nuclear DNA-binding proteins, such as NF-kappaB, is a well-accepted paradigm. However, studies from our laboratories and others suggested that TLR4 agonists elicit a more diverse pattern of gene expression in murine macrophages than TLR2 agonists. The data presented show that activation of TLR4 by Escherichia coli LPS results in an MyD88-independent, TIRAP/Mal-dependent signaling pathway that, in turn, leads to early induction of interferon-beta (IFN-beta). IFN-beta, in turn, acts in an autocrine/paracrine fashion on the macrophage to activate STAT1-containing DNA binding complexes that participate in the induction of genes not expressed in response to natural or synthetic TLR2 agonists. These data support the hypothesis that the host response to microbes is controlled by TLRs at two levels: (i) the "sensing" of differences in microbial structures through the TLR extracellular domain; and (ii) signaling pathways that are initiated via interactions through unique intracytoplasmic regions of different TLRs with adaptor proteins.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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