Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Vector Ecol. 2003 Jun;28(1):79-89.

Spatial and temporal distribution of mosquitoes in underground storm drain systems in Orange County, California.

Author information

Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.


Underground storm drain systems in urban areas of Orange County include thousands of miles of gutters and underground pipelines, plus hundreds of thousands of catch basins and manhole chambers, all of which drain runoff water from residential, business and commercial establishments as well as highways and streets. These systems serve as major developmental and resting sites for anthropophilic and zoophilic mosquitoes. Investigations on spatial and temporal distribution of mosquitoes in these systems were conducted during November 1999 to October 2001. Immature mosquitoes were sampled by dipper or dipping net and adult mosquitoes by non-attractive CDC traps in manhole chambers, catch basins and a large drain. Culex quinquefasciatus Say prevailed at all 15 structures of the study in 4 cities of Orange County as the predominant species (> 99.9%). Larvae and pupae were present from April to October, peaking from May to September. The population density of adults was the lowest in February with 2 peaks of abundance occurring from May to July and from September to October. Manhole chambers and catch basins harbored more mosquitoes than did the large drain. Minimum and maximum temperatures during a 24 h sampling period was an important factor influencing adult mosquito activity and catches; more mosquitoes were caught in traps when it was warmer, especially when the minimum temperatures were higher. The proportion of females to males in general increased during winter and early spring an ddeclined during summer. The proportion of gravid females to empty females was higher during the winter than in summer. Other dipteran taxa such as psychodid moth flies and chironomid midges exhibited somewhat similar seasonal patterns as did mosquito populations. Average water temperature was relatively stable throughout the year, and water quality in underground drain systems was characterized by low dissolved oxygen, coupled with above normal electrical conductivity and salinity levels that were more pronounced during the summer. The episodes of measurable rains that occurred during the winter months (February and March) reduced mosquito population density (both larvae and adults) and altered water quality in the underground drain systems.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center