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Mol Microbiol. 2003 Jul;49(2):389-400.

A translocated protein tyrosine phosphatase of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 modulates plant defence response to infection.

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1
Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Abstract

Pseudomonas syringae strains translocate effector proteins into host cells via the hrp-encoded type III protein secretion system (TTSS) to facilitate pathogenesis in susceptible plants. However, the mechanisms by which pathogenesis is favoured by these effectors are not well understood. Individual strains express multiple effectors with apparently distinct activities that are co-ordinately regulated by the alternative sigma factor HrpL. Genes for several effectors were identified in the P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 genome using a promoter trap assay to identify HrpL-dependent promoters. In addition to orthologues of avrPphE and hrpW, an unusual allele of avrPphD was detected that carried an IS52 insertion. Using this avrPphD::IS52 allele as a probe, a wild-type allele of avrPphD, hopPtoD1, and a chimeric homologue were identified in the DC3000 genome. This chimeric homologue, identified as HopPtoD2 in the annotated DC3000 genome, consisted of an amino terminal secretion domain similar to that of AvrPphD fused to a potential protein tyrosine phosphatase domain. Culture filtrates of strains expressing HopPtoD2 were able to dephosphorylate pNPP and two phosphotyrosine peptides. HopPtoD2 was shown to be translocated into Arabidopsis thaliana cells via the hrp-encoded TTSS. A DeltahopPtoD2 mutant of DC3000 exhibited strongly reduced virulence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ectopic expression of hopPtoD2 in P. syringae Psy61 that lacks a native hopPtoD2 orthologue delayed the development of several defence-associated responses including programmed cell death, active oxygen production and transcription of the pathogenesis-related gene PR1. The results indicate that HopPtoD2 is a translocated effector with protein tyrosine phosphatase activity that modulates plant defence responses.

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