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Dev Med Child Neurol. 2003 Jul;45(7):483-8.

Early prognostic factors for intellectual outcome in CHARGE syndrome.

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General Paediatric Unit, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France.


CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart disease, atresia of the choanae, retarded growth and mental development, genital anomalies, and ear malformations and hearing loss) is a heterogeneous condition for which early prediction of intellectual outcome is important but difficult. The psychomotor milestones and intellectual outcome of a consecutive series of children with CHARGE syndrome who were observed by the same team from the neonatal period to the time of study were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-one children (11 males and 10 females, aged from 5 to 12 years, mean 8 years 7 months, SD 2 years 5 months) were included. The influence of 19 early identifiable parameters that could be considered as deleterious for intellectual outcome was recorded. Generally, the main psychomotor milestones (0 to 4 years) were severely delayed, although intellectual outcome (at primary-school age) was satisfactory for half the children in this series. We show that extensive bilateral coloboma resulting in low vision, microcephaly, and brain malformation were the only three parameters that were predictive of poor intellectual outcome. Conversely, severe neonatal medical conditions, such as tracheotomy, conditions requiring long stays in hospital, or cardiac surgery were not predictive of poor intellectual outcome. Severe hearing loss was not found to be negatively correlated with intellectual outcome once coloboma had been taken into account.

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