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J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jul 2;51(14):4029-35.

Changes of the volatile profile and artifact formation in Daidai (Citrus aurantium) cold-pressed peel oil on storage.

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Department of Food Science and Technology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.


The chemical changes and artifact formation in daidai (Citrus aurantium L. var. Cyathifera Y. Tanaka) cold-pressed peel oil upon storage at 20, 5, and -21 degrees C for 3, 6, and 12 months were investigated using capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS. Major changes occurred in the oil stored at 20 and 5 degrees C. No changes were found at -21 degrees C. Monoterpene hydrocarbons decreased from 98.0 to 66.4% upon 12 months at 20 degrees C, while sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and alcohols increased from 0.1 to 2.4% and from 0.3 to 7.9%, respectively. Notable decreases of germacrene D, myrcene, linalyl acetate, and limonene occurred. Prominent increases of cis-carveol, trans-beta-farnesene, trans-p-2,8-menthadien-1-ol, linalool, and beta-caryophyllene were found. Thirty-four artifact compounds constituting 17.0% of the total volatile compounds were formed upon 12 months at 20 degrees C. The artifacts consisted of 13 alcohols (6.0%), five carbonyl compounds (5.3%), seven esters (4.9%), three epoxides (0.4%), four hydrocarbons (0.3%), and two unidentified. The prominent artifact compounds were (+)-carvone, trans,trans-farnesyl acetate, sabinene hydrate, 1-octen-3-ol, cis,cis-farnesyl acetate, and dihydrocarveol acetate. The results could be applied for monitoring and control of the flavor quality of daidai essential oil and related products.

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