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J Neurocytol. 1992 Dec;21(12):833-45.

Immunocytochemical staining with antibodies against protein kinase C and its isozymes in the turtle retina.

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Physiology Department, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City.


An LM immunocytochemical study has investigated the patterns of staining in turtle retina with monoclonal antibodies to the alpha, beta and gamma isozymes of protein kinase C. The protein kinase C-gamma antibody reveals cells in the ganglion cell layer, occasional amacrine cells and faint banding in strata 2 and 4 of the inner plexiform layer. The protein kinase C-beta antibody stains primarily amacrine cells that have dendrites running in strata 2, in 4 close to the 3/4 border and on the 4/5 border of the inner plexiform layer. Protein kinase C-alpha immunoreactivity is seen in a population of bipolar cells. The latter are characterized by stained axon terminals in strata 3 and 4 of the inner plexiform layer. A type of amacrine cell, different from those seen with the other antibodies, is also immunoreactive to protein kinase C-alpha. EM immunocytochemistry (using a polyclonal antibody) reveals protein kinase C immunoreactivity in photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells and ganglion cells. In photoreceptors protein kinase C immunoreactivity occurs as patchy staining associated with vesicles and the plasmalemma in pedicles and telodendria. Some varieties of bipolar cell display protein kinase C reaction product throughout the entire cell. Their dendrites contact photoreceptor pedicles at wide-cleft basal junctions and ribbon and non-ribbon related narrow cleft junctions. A few lateral elements per cone or rod pedicle are always protein kinase C-immunoreactive. Amacrine and ganglion cells typically show small clumps of protein kinase C immunoreactivity around vesicles and close to the postsynaptic membranes. Synaptic boutons of some varieties of amacrine cell stain more uniformly. Protein kinase C-immunoreactive bipolar cells are most commonly presynaptic in stratum 4 of the inner plexiform layer, while protein kinase C-immunoreactive amacrine cells are both pre- and postsynaptic throughout strata 1, 2, 3 and 4. Stratum 5 appears to be almost devoid of protein kinase C-immunoreactive neural profiles.

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