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J Hypertens. 2003 Jul;21(7):1383-9.

Fasting blood glucose is independently associated with resting and exercise blood pressures and development of elevated blood pressure.

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Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Akerhus, Norway.



To assess whether fasting blood glucose is independently related to blood pressure at rest and during exercise, and to development of elevated blood pressure.


Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of 2014 apparently healthy middle-aged men.


The baseline survey included carefully standardized blood pressure measurements at rest and during exercise testing, an intravenous glucose tolerance test and a panel of fasting blood tests, including fasting blood glucose. Results from 7-years follow-up provided data on development of elevated blood pressure.


Strong associations were found between quartiles of fasting blood glucose and baseline resting and/or exercise levels of blood pressure, and also development of elevated blood pressure over 7 years. Physical fitness, calculated from an exercise test, had a strong modulating effect on blood pressure at all levels of fasting blood glucose. In multivariate models - after adjusting for intravenous glucose tolerance, physical fitness, age, body mass index, triglycerides and cholesterol - fasting blood glucose was strongly associated with blood pressure at rest (coefficient = 2.83, P = 0.0004) and during exercise (coefficient = 6.57, P < 0.0001), and further to development of treated hypertension and/or elevated blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.31].


In healthy non-diabetic and non-hypertensive men, strong associations were found between fasting blood glucose and blood pressure at rest and during exercise and to development of elevated blood pressure after 7-years follow-up. Fasting glucose metabolism deserves scrutiny when studying the pathogenesis of hypertension.

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