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Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2003 Apr 28;1:14.

The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): translation and validation study of the Iranian version.

Author information

1
Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research. ali@jdcord.jd.ac.ir

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used instrument to measure psychological morbidity in cancer patients. This study aimed to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the HADS.

METHODS:

The English language version of the HADS was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 167 breast cancer patients and statistical analysis was performed to test the reliability and validity of the HADS.

RESULTS:

In general the Iranian version of the HADS was found to be acceptable to almost all patients (99%). Cronbach's alpha coefficient (to test reliability) has been found to be 0.78 for the HADS anxiety sub-scale and 0.86 for the HADS depression sub-scale. Validity as performed using known groups comparison analysis showed satisfactory results. Both anxiety and depression sub-scales discriminated well between sub-groups of patients differing in clinical status as defined by their disease stage.

CONCLUSION:

This preliminary validation study of the Iranian version of the HADS proved that it is an acceptable, a reliable and valid measure of psychological distress among cancer patients.

PMID:
12816545
PMCID:
PMC161819
DOI:
10.1186/1477-7525-1-14
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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