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Opt Lett. 2003 Jun 1;28(11):902-4.

Multiphoton endoscopy.

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Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974, USA.


Despite widespread use of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, development of endoscopes for nonlinear optical imaging has been stymied by the degradation of ultrashort excitation pulses that occurs within optical fiber as a result of the combined effects of group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. We introduce microendoscopes (350-1000 microm in diameter) based on gradient-index microlenses that effectively eliminate self-phase modulation within the endoscope. Laser-scanning multiphoton fluorescence endoscopy exhibits micrometer-scale resolution. We used multiphoton endoscopes to image fluorescently labeled neurons and dendrites.

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