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Hum Mutat. 2003 Jul;22(1):1-11.

One gene, two phenotypes: ROR2 mutations in autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome and autosomal dominant brachydactyly type B.

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Medical Genetics Unit, St George's Hospital Medical School, London, UK.


Autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome (RRS) is a severe skeletal dysplasia with short stature, generalized limb shortening, segmental defects of the spine, brachydactyly, and a dysmorphic facial appearance. The gene encoding receptor orphan receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ROR2) is located on chromosome 9q22 and homozygous loss-of-function mutations in this gene are responsible for RRS. Moreover, knocking out the mouse Ror2 gene causes mesomelic dwarfism in the homozygous state, with almost identical features to recessive Robinow syndrome. The protein product of this gene is a cell membrane receptor, containing distinct motifs including an immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domain, a Frizzled-like cysteine-rich domain (FRZ or CRD), and a kringle domain (KD) in the extracellular region; and an intracellular region with tyrosine kinase (TK), serine/threonine-rich, and proline-rich structures. The extracellular motifs of the ROR2 protein are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. The tyrosine kinase domain is involved in an as yet uncharacterized signaling pathway. Interestingly, heterozygous mutations in ROR2 have recently been shown to give rise to autosomal dominant brachydactyly type B1 (BDB1). This condition is characterized by terminal deficiency of fingers and toes. A variety of mutations have been reported in ROR2. Here, these genetic defects are compiled and possible genotype-phenotype correlations are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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