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Eur Urol. 2003 Jul;44(1):8-15; discussion 15-6.

DD3(PCA3)-based molecular urine analysis for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

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  • 1Department of Experimental Urology, Nijmegen Center for Molecular Life Sciences, P.O Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.



DD3(PCA3) is the most prostate cancer-specific gene described to date. To assess the clinical utility of DD3(PCA3) a time-resolved fluorescence-based, quantitative RT-PCR analysis for DD3(PCA3) was developed.


The diagnostic potential of DD3(PCA3) was determined by quantitative measurement of DD3(PCA3) transcripts in non-malignant and malignant prostate specimens. Moreover, DD3(PCA3) transcripts were determined quantitatively in urine sediments obtained after prostatic massage. A cohort of 108 men, admitted for prostate biopsies based on a PSA of >3ng/ml, was studied.


Prostate tumors showed a 66-fold up-regulation of DD3(PCA3) (median 158.4.10(5) copies/microg tissue RNA) when compared to benign prostate tissue (median 2.4.10(5) copies/microg tissue RNA). This up-regulation was found in more than 95% of prostate cancer specimens studied. These data revealed that specimens with less than 10% of cancer cells could be accurately discriminated from non-cancer tissues. Hence, detection of a small fraction of prostate cancer cells in a background of normal cells seemed feasible. Therefore, this DD3(PCA3)-based RT-PCR assay was used for the identification of prostate cancer in urine sediments obtained after prostatic massage. From 108 men with a serum PSA value >3ng/ml, 24 men were shown to have prostate cancer upon biopsy. Of these 24 men, 16 were shown to be positive for DD3(PCA3), indicating a sensitivity of the assay of 67%. Furthermore, a negative predictive value of 90% was calculated.


The quantitative RT-PCR assay for DD3(PCA3) described, bears great promise as a tool for molecular urine analysis. It has great potential in reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies. A multi-center study using this DD3(PCA3) assay can provide the basis for the utility of molecular diagnostics in clinical urological practice.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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