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Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Jul;3(7):979-86.

Effect of total secondary carotenoids extracts from Chlorococcum sp on Helicobacter pylori-infected BALB/c mice.

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Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, The National University of Singapore, 5 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117597, Singapore.


Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen associated with type B gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. A high intake of carotenoids has been suggested to prevent development of gastric malignancies. Microalgae Chlorococcum sp. could accumulate secondary carotenoids under stress conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dietary cell extract of Chlorococcum sp. could affect the bacterial load of H. pylori infected BALB/c mice and whether it could induce modulation of cytokine production. BALB/c mice were infected with H. pylori three times at 2-day intervals. Two weeks later, they were orally fed with cell extract of Chlorococcum sp. for the following 2 weeks. Animals were killed at the end of the experiments. Stomachs were removed and paraffin sections were stained for histology examination. Splenocytes were obtained and cultured in vitro with H. pylori sonicate to evaluate induction of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) secretion. Mice treated with carotenoids-rich algal meal showed significantly reduced bacterial load and gastric inflammation. These changes were associated with a shift of the T-lymphocytes response from a predominant T helper type 1 (Th1) response dominated by IFN-gamma to a Th1/Th2 response with IFN-gamma and IL-4.

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