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Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2003 Feb;13(1):73-93.

Venous manifestations of spinal arteriovenous fistulas.

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  • 1Department of Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.


Spinal dural AVFs, the most common type of spinal arteriovenous malformations, are symptomatic because of venous hypertension and congestion. This has been referred to as venous congestive myelopathy. The typical MRI findings that reflect venous congestive myelopathy include peripheral T2 hypointensity that outlines a T2 hyperintensity within a swollen spinal cord. Enlarged perimedullary vessels are typically present. Contrast-enhanced MRA has become instrumental in localizing the site of these fistulas. Spinal epidural AVFs and the perimedullary spinal cord AVFs may also present with a congestive myelopathy and have similar findings on MRI. Angiography remains the gold standard for characterization of the angioarchitecture of spinal vascular malformations. [figure: see text] Multidisciplinary treatment planning is mandatory and requires knowledge of the natural history of these vascular lesions.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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