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Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2003 Apr;48(2):54-66.

[Poland's syndrome: clinic series and thoraco-mammary reconstruction. Report of 27 cases].

[Article in French]

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Service de chirurgie plastique et des brûlés, hôpital de Rangueil, 1, avenue Jean-Paulhès, TSA50032, 31059 cedex 9, Toulouse, France. <>


The authors evaluate the quality of thoraco-mammary reconstructions in Poland's syndrome. There was 34 patients in our serie, and 27 were operating between 1982 and 2001. There was 19 women and 8 men; the mean age was 19 years (9-40 years). Because of the clinical variability, the authors propose a classification of the malformation's importance in 3 degrees. In our serie, there is 35% of degree I, 53% of degree II and 12% of degree III. Each patient had an average of 2 general anaesthesias (1-6). For the first operation time, men had translation of the homolateral latissimus dorsi muscle flap in 25%, and a thoracic prosthese in 75%. Women had mammary prosthese in 50%, expansion prosthese in 20%, mammary prosthese and thoracic prosthese in 20%, muscle flap in 10%. The same person analysed the results in terms: good, middle or bad. The results are good in 67%, middle in 22%, poor in 11%. In degree 1, the results are always good; in degree II, they are good in 59%, middle in 29% and poor in 12%; in degree III, the results are good, middle and poor in 33%.

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