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Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Jun;22(6):483-90.

Risk factors for bronchiolitis-associated deaths among infants in the United States.

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1
Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Division of Viral and Ricksettial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Center for Disease Control and Prevention/DHHS, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Risk factors for bronchiolitis deaths have not been described on a national level. We examined the epidemiology of and identified risk factors for bronchiolitis-associated deaths among infants in the United States.

METHODS:

Multiple cause-of-death and linked birth/infant death data for 1996 through 1998 were used to examine bronchiolitis-associated infant deaths. Risk factors were assessed by comparing infants who died with bronchiolitis and surviving infants.

RESULTS:

During 1996 through 1998 there were 229 bronchiolitis infant deaths, resulting in an average annual infant mortality rate of 2.0 per 100 000 live births. The majority (55%) of infant deaths occurred among infants ages 1 through 3 months. The bronchiolitis mortality rate was highest among infants weighing <1500 g at birth (VLBW) as compared with infants weighing 1500 to 2499 g (LBW) and > or =2500 g at birth (29.8, 6.4 and 1.3 per 100 000 live births, respectively). Sixty-three percent of bronchiolitis deaths were among infants weighing > or =2500 g. VLBW and LBW infants remained at an increased risk of dying with bronchiolitis after controlling for other risk factors. Other risk factors included increasing birth order, low 5-min Apgar score, young maternal age, unmarried mother and tobacco use during pregnancy.

CONCLUSIONS:

VLBW and LBW infants are at increased risk of dying with bronchiolitis, even when taking into account other risk factors. Although infants weighing <2500 g at birth are at increased risk for dying with bronchiolitis, the majority of bronchiolitis deaths occur among infants of normal birth weight.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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