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Vaccine. 2003 Jun 20;21(21-22):2830-6.

Epidermal powder immunization of mice and monkeys with an influenza vaccine.

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PowderJect Vaccines, Inc., 585 Science Drive, Madison, WI 53711, USA.


Epidermal powder immunization (EPI) with an influenza vaccine and an adjuvant such as QS-21, LTR72, or cholera toxin elicited augmented serum and mucosal antibody responses in mice. Rhesus macaques, which have an immune system and skin structure similar to humans, were used to further evaluate the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine following EPI. EPI of rhesus macaques with an influenza vaccine and QS-21 adjuvant elicited significantly higher serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers than antigen alone administered by EPI or by intramuscular (IM) injection using a needle and syringe. In the absence of QS-21, EPI and IM injection elicited comparable HI titers in the monkeys. This study suggests that EPI is a promising technique for administering human vaccine and that QS-21 augments the immunogenicity of co-administered influenza vaccine.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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