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Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jun;101(6):1236-42.

Pregnancy outcome in recurrent miscarriage patients with skewed X chromosome inactivation.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA.



To analyze X inactivation in women with recurrent miscarriage to estimate whether skewed X inactivation is associated with recurrent miscarriage and whether it predicts next pregnancy outcomes.


A multicenter study was performed. A power calculation determined that 101 patients were needed to detect a difference in skewed X inactivation between patients and controls. Patients were entered into a prospective trial of mononuclear-cell immunotherapy and subsequently tested for skewed X inactivation. Age-matched controls had one live birth and no prior miscarriages. Results from our X inactivation assay were compared with those from an independent genetics laboratory.


Greater than 75% skewing was seen in 22.6% of patients and 26.5% controls (P =.52). Greater than 90% skewing was seen in 6.6% of patients and 3.9% of controls (P =.77). There were 19.8% of primary aborters and 32% of secondary aborters with greater than 75% skewed X inactivation (P =.38). There were 4.9% of primary aborters and 12.0% of secondary aborters with greater than 90% skewed X inactivation (P =.27) Neither greater than 75% nor greater than 90% skewed X inactivation impacted next pregnancy outcomes (odds ratios = 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34, 2.3] and 1.4 [95% CI 0.27, 7.5], respectively). Results of the exchange of samples with an independent laboratory were highly correlated (alpha = 0.987, P <.001, coefficient of variation = 5.5%).


Skewed X chromosome inactivation is not associated with recurrent miscarriage. A patient's X chromosome inactivation status does not predict next pregnancy outcome. Our assay correlates with another experienced laboratory.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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