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The interaction between dendritic cells and herpes simplex virus-1.

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Department of Dermatology, University of Erlangen, Hartmannstrasse 14, 91052 Erlangen, Germany.


Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells, because they are also able to induce native T cells. Thus they are crucial in the induction of antiviral immune responses. Several viral immune escape mechanisms have been described; here we concentrate on the interaction between DCs and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). DCs can be infected by HSV-1; however, only immature DCs generate infectious viral particles, whereas mature DCs do not support virus production and only immediate-early and early viral transcripts are generated. To induce potent immune responses DCs must mature. Interestingly, HSV-1 interferes with this maturation process, thus inhibiting antiviral T cell stimulation. Furthermore, HSV-1 strongly interferes with DC-mediated T cell proliferation. A striking finding was the complete degradation of CD83, the best-known marker for mature DC, after HSV-1 infection in lysosomal compartments. This CD83 degradation coincided with a clearly reduced T cell stimulation representing an additional new escape strategy. The functional role and the importance of CD83 are discussed in detail.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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