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J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 22;278(34):32141-9. Epub 2003 Jun 5.

Transcriptional, proteomic, and metabolic responses to lithium in galactose-grown yeast cells.

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Center for Process Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Building 223, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark.


Lithium is highly toxic to yeast when grown in galactose medium mainly because phosphoglucomutase, a key enzyme of galactose metabolism, is inhibited. We studied the global protein and gene expression profiles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in galactose in different time intervals after addition of lithium. These results were related to physiological studies where both secreted and intracellular metabolites were determined. Microarray analysis showed that 664 open reading frames were down-regulated and 725 up-regulated in response to addition of lithium. Genes involved in transcription, translation, and nucleotide metabolism were down-regulated at the transcriptional level, whereas genes responsive to different stresses as well as genes from energy reserve metabolism and monosaccharide metabolism were up-regulated. Compared with the proteomic data, 26% of the down-regulated and 48% of the up-regulated proteins were also identified as being changed on the mRNA level. Functional clusters obtained from proteome data were coincident with transcriptional clusters. Physiological studies showed that acetate, glycerol, and glycogen accumulate in response to lithium, as reflected in expression data, whereas a change from respiro-fermentative to respiratory growth could not be predicted from the expression analyses.

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