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Ophthalmic Genet. 2003 Jun;24(2):81-8.

Ophthalmic manifestations of congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1a.

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Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Handicap, Copenhagen County Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark.



To present the ophthalmic manifestations of patients with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia (CDG-Ia) due to the frequent R141H/F119L PMM2 genotype.


Ophthalmic records of 23 patients (age: 10 months to 20 years) were evaluated. They had had at least one ophthalmic reexamination.


Measurements of refractive error showed that 18 patients were myopic, two were hypermetropic, and three could not be measured. Serial measurements in 12 patients indicated a progression towards myopia of 0.80 diopters (D) per year. Congenital esotropia and delayed visual maturation (DVM) were consistent findings. Two children developed good visual acuity (VA), 16 had low vision, and five were legally blind. Pallor of the optic disc was noted in five patients. Electroretinography (ERG) performed in nine patients showed reduced rod responses, while cone responses were only slightly reduced.


The present study illustrates the difficulties in examining severely disabled children. Consistent ophthalmic manifestations of CDG-Ia patients due to the R141H/F119L genotype were congenital esotropia, DVM, and a reduced rod response in ERG-examined patients. The vast majority of patients had reduced VA and developed myopia. We speculate that there is a relationship between the glycosylation defect in CDG-Ia and the development of myopia. We recommend that CDG-Ia patients be followed annually by an ophthalmologist.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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