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Mutat Res. 2003 Jun 19;527(1-2):7-14.

Effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid on radiation-induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow.

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Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal 576119, India.


5-Aminosalicylic acid (5ASA), a prescribed drug for ulcerative colitis, is a potent scavenger of oxygen-derived free radicals. The present study was undertaken to ascertain its ability to protect against radiation-induced damage. The drug dose-dependent effect, optimum time of drug administration and radiation dose-dependent effect (0-4 Gy) on in vivo radiation protection against micronuclei induction in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) were studied in the bone marrow of mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 10-125 mg/kg of the drug 30 min before whole body irradiation with 3 Gy produced a significant reduction in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes at 24 h after exposure. The optimum dose for protection without drug toxicity was 25 mg/kg body weight. Injection of 25 mg/kg of the drug 60 or 30 min before or within 15 min after 3 Gy whole body gamma-irradiation resulted in a significant decrease in the radiation-induced PCE and NCE with micronuclei (MPCE and MNCE) and an increase in the ratio of PCE to NCE (P/N), at 24 h post-irradiation. Maximum effect was seen when the drug was administered 30 min before irradiation. Therefore, to study the radiation dose-response, mice were pre-treated with 25 mg/kg of 5ASA 30 min before 1-4 Gy of gamma-irradiation. Radiation increased the MN frequency linearly (r(2)=0.99) with dose. Pre-treatment with 5ASA significantly reduced the MN counts to 40-50% of the radiation (RT) alone values, giving a dose modification factor (DMF) of 2.02 (MPCE) and 2.53 (MNCE). Irradiation resulted in a dose-dependent decline in the P/N ratio at all the doses of radiation studied. 5ASA produced a significant increase in the P/N ratio from that of irradiated controls, at all doses of radiations tested. These results show that 5ASA protect mice against radiation-induced MN formation and mitotic arrest.

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