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Kidney Int. 2003 Jul;64(1):128-39.

Radiographic contrast media-induced tubular injury: evaluation of oxidant stress and plasma membrane integrity.

Author information

1
The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA. dzager@fhcrc.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Experimental and clinical investigations suggest that oxidant stress is a critical determinant of radiocontrast nephropathy (RCN), and that N acetyl cysteine (NAC) can prevent this damage. This study addresses these issues directly at the tubular cell level. Potential alternative mechanisms for RCN have also been sought.

METHODS:

Isolated mouse proximal tubule segments (PTS), or cultured proximal tubule (HK-2) cells, were subjected to radiocontrast media (RCM) (Ioversol, Optiray 320) exposure, followed by assessments of cellular viability [% lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, tetrazolium dye (MTT), uptake] and lipid peroxidation. These experiments were conducted in the absence or presence of a variety of antioxidants [NAC, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase, catalase] or pro-oxidant (GSH depletion, heme oxygenase inhibition) strategies. RCM effects on mitochondrial and plasma membrane integrity were also assessed.

RESULTS:

RCM exposure did not induce PTS lipid peroxidation. Neither antioxidant nor pro-oxidant interventions mitigated or exacerbated RCM-induced tubular cell injury, respectively. RCM impaired mitochondrial integrity, as assessed by ouabain-resistant ATP reductions, and by cytochrome c release (before cell death). RCM also induced plasma membrane damage, as indicated by loss of key resident proteins (NaK-ATPase, caveolin) and by increased susceptibility to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) attack (increase of >/=2 times in free fatty acid and NaK-ATPase release). Hyperosmolality could not account for RCM's toxic effects.

CONCLUSION:

RCM toxicity can be dissociated from tubular cell oxidant stress. Alternative mechanisms may include mitochondrial injury/cytochrome c release and plasma membrane damage. The latter results in critical protein loss, as well as a marked increase in plasma membrane susceptibility to exogenous/endogenous PLA2 attack.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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