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Biochem J. 2003 Aug 15;374(Pt 1):261-8.

XB51 isoforms mediate Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide production by X11L (X11-like protein)-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

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Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.


XB51 (derived from X11-like binding protein of clone number 51) was isolated by yeast two-hybrid cDNA screening using the N-terminal domain of X11L (X11-like protein) as a bait. X11L is a neuron-specific adaptor protein that is known to down-regulate APP (beta-amyloid precursor protein) metabolism by associating with the cytoplasmic domain of APP, but the detailed mechanisms are still unknown. Thus the X11L-associated protein XB51 is believed to regulate APP metabolism by modifying X11L function through its interaction with X11L. Here we report that the hXB51 (human XB51 ) gene can yield two transcripts, one with exon 9 spliced out (resulting in the hXB51beta isoform) and the other containing exon 9 (yielding the hXB51alpha isoform). hXB51alpha binds to X11L to form a tripartite complex composed of hXB51alpha, X11L and APP. Complex-formation results in blocking X11L's suppression of Abeta (beta-amyloid) generation from APP. hXB51beta associates with X11L and inhibits its interaction with APP. However, hXB51beta suppresses Abeta generation and secretion in an X11L-independent manner. Thus the hXB51 isoforms regulate Abeta generation differently, either enhancing it by modifying the association of X11L with APP or suppressing it in an X11L-independent manner. These observations advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating intracellular Abeta production and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

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