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Biometals. 2003 Dec;16(4):497-505.

Bacillus subtilis CPx-type ATPases: characterization of Cd, Zn, Co and Cu efflux systems.

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Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-8101, USA.


Metal ion homeostasis requires the balanced expression of metal ion uptake systems, when metals are limiting, and corresponding efflux or storage systems, when metals are in excess. CPx-type ATPases are a family of membrane-bound transporters that often function to export toxic metals from cells. The Bacillus subtilis genome encodes three CPx-type ATPases: zosA, yvgW and yvgX. We demonstrate that yvgW and yvgX encode CadA and CopA, respectively, and that these genes function in metal ion resistance. A cadA mutant was sensitive to Cd(II), Zn(II) and Co(II), but not copper. Transcription of cadA initiates from a single, sigmaA-type promoter and was induced by Cd(II), Zn(II), and Co(II). The adjacent copZA operon is expressed as a bicistronic transcript from a sigmaA-type promoter and is selectively induced by copper. Mutation of either copZ, encoding a metallochaperone, or copA sensitizes the cells to copper but not to other metal ions.

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