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Endocrine. 2003 Jun;21(1):77-9.

Estrogens and Parkinson disease: novel approach for neuroprotection.

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Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Sakyoku, Japan.


Epidemiologic studies revealed that the prevalence of Parkinson disease is higher in males than in females and that the progression of the disease might be rapid in males compared with females. The reason for the gender difference is unknown; however, estrogens may be involved. Many studies have revealed that estrogens provide neuroprotective effects and that the protective mechanisms include antioxidant property and upregulation of Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Upregulation of Bcl-2 or GDNF is mediated by nonnuclear estrogen receptor (ER) in addition to transcription regulation by ER. To avoid undesirable effect of estrogens, several selective ER modulators, raloxifene and genistein are considered.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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