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Appl Opt. 2003 May 20;42(15):2571-92.

Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations.

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NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA.


The essential information required for the analysis of Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol data acquired by use of a single laser wavelength is compiled here and in a companion paper [Appl. Opt. 42, 2593 (2003)]. Various details concerning the evaluation of the lidar equations when Raman scattering is measured are covered. These details include the influence of the temperature dependence of both pure rotational and vibrational-rotational Raman scattering on the lidar profile. The full temperature dependence of the Rayleigh-Mie and Raman lidar equations are evaluated by use of a new form of the lidar equation where all the temperature dependence is carried in a single term. The results indicate that, for the range of temperatures encountered in the troposphere, the magnitude of the temperature-dependent effect can reach 10% or more for narrowband Raman water-vapor measurements. Also, the calculation of atmospheric transmission, including the effects of depolarization, is examined carefully. Various formulations of Rayleigh cross-section determination commonly used in the lidar field are compared and reveal differences of as much as 5% among the formulations. The influence of multiple scattering on the measurement of aerosol extinction with the Raman lidar technique is considered, as are several photon pulse pileup-correction techniques.

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