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Nat Rev Immunol. 2003 Jun;3(6):454-62.

The TIM gene family: emerging roles in immunity and disease.

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  • 1Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


The search for cell-surface markers that can distinguish T helper 1 (T(H)1) cells from T(H)2 cells has led to the identification of a new gene family, encoding the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) proteins, some of which are differentially expressed by T(H)1 and T(H)2 cells. The role of the TIM-family proteins in immune regulation is just beginning to emerge. Here, we describe the various TIM-family members in mice and humans, and discuss the genetic and functional evidence for their role in regulating autoimmune and allergic diseases.

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