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Br J Cancer. 2003 Jun 2;88(11):1702-7.

Lifestyles, environmental and phenotypic factors associated with lip cancer: a case-control study in southern Spain.

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  • 1Unidad de investigación, Hospital Costa del Sol, Ctra Nacional 340, km 187, Marbella, 29600 Málaga, Spain.


The aim of this study was to identify factors related to lip cancer (LC) considering individual characteristics and sociodemographic factors. A case-control study was carried out in the province of Granada (Andalusia, southern Spain). The cases were 105 males with squamous-cell carcinoma of the lip, diagnosed between 1987 and 1989 (aged 20-70 years) and identified by means of a population-based Cancer Registry. As controls, a randomised populational sample of 239 males, stratified by age, was used. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors are lifetime cumulative tobacco consumption and alcohol consumption. An interaction was found between alcohol consumption and the smoking habit (leaving the cigarette on the lip): OR=23.6; 95% CI: 3.9-142.0. Other risk factors identified are clear eyes (OR=3.5; CI: 95% 1.5-8.0), sun exposure early in life and cumulative sun exposure during outdoor work (OR=11.9; 95%: CI: 1.3-108.9), and skin reaction to sun exposure (Fitzpatrick levels). Another interaction was found between skin reaction and a previous history of common sporadic warts (OR=4.4; 95% CI: 1.01-19.1). We conclude that LC is related to phenotype, skin reaction to sun exposure, cumulative and early sunlight exposure, and tobacco and alcohol consumption, as well as a low educational level. Leaving the cigarette on the lip is predictive of LC risk irrespective of cumulative tobacco consumption.

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