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J Gen Virol. 2003 Jun;84(Pt 6):1383-1392. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.19016-0.

Comparison of virus production in chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with the WR, IHD-J and MVA strains of vaccinia virus: IHD-J is most efficient in trans-Golgi network wrapping and extracellular enveloped virus release.

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EMBL, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
GSF Institute for Molecular Virology, Trogerstrasse 4b, 81675 Munich, Germany.


Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated strain derived from vaccinia virus (VV) Ankara that grows efficiently in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and baby hamster kidney cells only. MVA produces significantly more of the enveloped forms of VV in infected CEFs compared with VV strain Copenhagen. In the present study, production of the different infectious forms of VV was compared in CEFs infected with MVA or with two well-characterized replication-competent VV strains, WR and IHD-J. In a time-course experiment, the infectivity associated with the extracellular enveloped virus (EEV), the cell-associated enveloped virus (CEV) and intracellular mature and enveloped viruses was determined. Further, the production of the different viral forms was quantified by electron microscopy (EM). The data collectively indicate that IHD-J is most efficient in producing all of the trans-Golgi network-wrapped forms and releases the highest titres of EEVs into the extracellular medium, with WR being least efficient. MVA initially replicated with faster kinetics, resulting in more intracellular virus and CEVs between 8 and 24 h post-infection (p.i.). As assessed by EM, the faster growth kinetics of MVA resulted in 3.5-fold more CEVs at the cell surface at 24 h p.i., compared with both WR and IHD-J. Accordingly, we found that despite the presence of two in-frame deletions in the A36R gene of MVA, this virus was able to make actin tails in CEFs.

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