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Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Jun 1;36(11):1433-7. Epub 2003 May 16.

The impact of antimicrobial resistance on health and economic outcomes.

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Division of Infectious Disease, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.


Despite an increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, the health and economic impact of colonization and infection with these organisms has not been fully elucidated. We explore how antimicrobial resistance can affect patient outcomes by enhancing virulence, causing a delay in the administration of appropriate therapy, and limiting available therapy. Next, we examine the different perspectives held by hospitals, third-party payers, patients, and society on the impact of resistance. Finally, we review methodological issues in designing and assessing studies that address the clinical outcomes for patients infected or colonized with resistant pathogens, including adjustment for important confounding variables, control group selection, and the quantification of economic outcomes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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