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Neuron. 2003 May 22;38(4):529-45.

New paradigm for optical imaging: temporally encoded maps of intrinsic signal.

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W.M. Keck Foundation Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


We present a new technique for acquiring and analyzing intrinsic signal optical images of brain activity, using continuous stimulus presentation and data acquisition. The main idea is to present a temporally periodic stimulus and to analyze the component of the response at the stimulus frequency. Advantages of the new technique include the removal of heart, respiration, and vasomotor artifacts, a dramatic increase in spatial resolution, and a 30-fold or greater reduction in acquisition time. We also present a novel approach to localizing instantaneous neuronal responses using time-reversed stimuli that is widely applicable to brain imaging. To demonstrate the power of the technique, we present high-resolution retinotopic maps of five visual areas in mouse cortex and orientation maps in cat visual cortex.

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