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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Apr;986:669-77.

Mechanisms of pressure natriuresis: how blood pressure regulates renal sodium transport.

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Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90089-9142, USA.


An acute increase in blood pressure provokes a rapid decrease in proximal tubule salt and water reabsorption that is central to tubuloglomerular feedback regulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and contributes to pressure natriuresis. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this critical homeostatic adjustment were studied. When blood pressure is acutely elevated, apical proximal tubule NHE3 are rapidly redistributed out of the microvilli to intermicrovillar clefts and then endosomal pools, and Na,K-ATPase activity is suppressed. Depressing apical Na(+) entry without hypertension is not sufficient to decrease Na,K-ATPase activity, and depressing Na,K-ATPase activity alone is not sufficient to decrease proximal tubule Na(+) and water reabsorption; thus, it appears that coordinated decreases in both NHE3 surface distribution and Na,K-ATPase activity may be important for the response to acute hypertension. Clamping plasma angiotensin II levels blunts the retraction of NHE3 from the cell surface to endosomal pools. The increased volume flow of salt and water to the loop of Henle stimulates Na,K-ATPase activity in this region and provides evidence for a downstream shift in sodium transport during acute hypertension. These same responses in the proximal tubule and loop develop and persist in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. These studies demonstrate that sodium transporters along the nephron are very dynamic, responding quickly to normal fluctuations of blood pressure, and are key to generating the macula densa tubuloglomerular feedback signal and for accommodating increased volume flow through the loop of Henle.

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