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Oper Dent. 2003 May-Jun;28(3):251-9.

Cytotoxicity of conventional and modified glass ionomer cements.

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National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.


Various glass ionomer cements (GICs) and resin-modified GICs are widely used as tooth-colored restorative materials. However, their potential effects on pulp tissues are not fully understood. In this study, the authors compared the toxicity of nine types of GICs on cultured human dental pulp cells. Exposure of pulp cells to GICs for five days led to differential growth inhibition as analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Exposure of pulp cells to ProTec CEM, Fuji II LC, Compoglass and GC Lining cement for five days decreased the cell numbers to 11%, 12%, 19% and 25%, respectively, of the control. Exposure of pulp cells to Fuji IX, GIC FX and Fuji II SC also decreased cell numbers by 62%, 33% and 24%, respectively. By contrast, Hy-Bond and Fuji I showed only mild suppression on the growth of pulp cells, with 12% and 16% decreased cell numbers. Morphologically, marked retraction and rounding of pulp cells were noted following exposure to GC Lining cement; in addition, cell surface blebbing was noted following exposure to Compoglass, Fuji II LC and ProTec CEM. Exposure of the pulp cells to Fuji II SC and Fuji IX, however, led to decreases in the cell density, with no obvious morphological changes. These results indicate that resin-modified GICs, such as Compoglass, Fuji II LC, ProTec CEM and GC Lining cements, are more toxic to pulp cells than conventional GICs. It is not recommended that resin-modified GICs be directly applied onto dental pulp cells. However, additional in vivo studies are needed to evaluate the potential toxicities of these resin-modified GICs during clinical operative procedures.

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