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Nephron Physiol. 2003;93(4):p87-93.

Nephrotoxicity and the proximal tubule. Insights from cadmium.

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School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.


Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a non-essential heavy metal, which is taken up from the environment into the body through pulmonary and enteral pathways. The S1 segment of the kidney proximal tubule (PT) is a major target of chronic Cd(2+) toxicity. Renal dysfunction develops in up to 7% of the general population and in its most severe form displays major features of Fanconi syndrome, such as a defective protein, amino acid, glucose, bicarbonate and phosphate reabsorption. The major pathway for Cd(2+) uptake by PT cells (PTCs) in vivo is apical endocytosis of Cd(2+) complexed to the high-affinity metal-binding protein metallothionein (MT), which may be receptor-mediated. MT is subsequently degraded in endo-lysosomes, and Cd(2+) is liberated for translocation into the cytosolic compartment, possibly using transporters for Fe(2+), Zn(2+) or Cu(2+), such as the divalent metal transporter DMT1. Free Cd(2+) ions in the extracellular space are translocated across apical and/or basolateral PTC membranes into the cytosol via transporters, whose identity remains unknown. Cytosolic Cd(2+) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which deplete endogenous radical scavengers. ROS also damage a variety of transport proteins, including the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which are subsequently degraded by the proteasome and endo-lysosomal proteases. Cd(2+) causes mitochondrial swelling and release of cytochrome C. If these ROS-mediated stress events are not balanced by repair processes, affected cells undergo apoptosis. But Cd(2+) also induces the upregulation of cytoprotective stress and metal-scavenging proteins, such as MT. In addition, Cd(2+) upregulates the detoxifying pump multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein, which appears to protect PTCs against Cd(2+)-induced apoptosis. Thus, Cd(2+) interferes with various cellular events ranging from mechanisms of induction of programmed cell death to activation of cell survival genes. A better understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in Cd(2+) nephrotoxicity should provide insights into other heavy metal (e.g. Pb(2+), Hg(2+)) nephropathies and various forms of acquired Fanconi syndrome.

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