Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Br J Dermatol. 2003 Apr;148(4):680-8.

Expression of NF-kappaB in epidermis and the relationship between NF-kappaB activation and inhibition of keratinocyte growth.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor involved in a number of signalling pathways in many cell types. NF-kappaB in mice has been implicated as an important regulator of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the role of NF-kappaB in keratinocyte growth in human beings, we examined its expression in keratinocytes both in culture and in situ, and studied the relationship between NF-kappaB activation and the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation induced by known modulators of keratinocyte growth.

METHODS:

The expression of subunits of the NF-kappaB family was examined in human skin, primary cultured keratinocytes and an immortalized keratinocyte line by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. NF-kB activation was examined in keratinocytes treated with various modulating agents by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (for DNA-binding activity) and by immunocytochemistry (nuclear translocation). The proliferative capacity of treated keratinocytes was also examined by 3H-thymidine incorporation, cell cycle analysis, and expression of Ki-67, a nuclear marker for cell proliferation. The involvement of NF-kappaB was assessed using sodium salicylate, which inhibits NF-kappaB activation.

RESULTS:

The NF-kappaB subunits, p50, p65, RelB, and c-Rel (but not p52), were detected in keratinocytes and in normal epidermis at mRNA and protein levels. The four subunits were expressed in a cytoplasmic (rather than a nuclear) pattern in both basal and suprabasal keratinocytes. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), tumour necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma each activated NF-kappaB and inhibited keratinocyte proliferation. Lipopolysaccharide and dexamethasone did not activate NF-kappaB and had the least effect on proliferation. Finally, a high concentration of calcium (Ca2+) and retinoic acid each failed to activate NF-kappaB, but were potent inhibitors of keratinocyte proliferation, respectively. PMA-induced cell cycle arrest of keratinocytes was blocked by pretreatment with sodium salicylate.

CONCLUSIONS:

NF-kappaB is constitutively expressed in a resting state in both human cultured keratinocytes and the epidermis. Activation of NF-kappaB is required for PMA-induced keratinocyte growth arrest.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center