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FEMS Yeast Res. 2003 Jun;3(4):417-32.

Phylogenetic relationships among yeasts of the 'Saccharomyces complex' determined from multigene sequence analyses.

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Microbial Genomics and Bioprocessing Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA.


Species of Saccharomyces, Arxiozyma, Eremothecium, Hanseniaspora (anamorph Kloeckera), Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Pachytichospora, Saccharomycodes, Tetrapisispora, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces, as well as three related anamorphic species assigned to Candida (C. castellii, C. glabrata, C. humilis), were phylogenetically analyzed from divergence in genes of the rDNA repeat (18S, 26S, ITS), single copy nuclear genes (translation elongation factor 1alpha, actin-1, RNA polymerase II) and mitochondrially encoded genes (small-subunit rDNA, cytochrome oxidase II). Single-gene phylogenies were congruent for well-supported terminal lineages but deeper branches were not well resolved. Analysis of combined gene sequences resolved the 75 species compared into 14 clades, many of which differ from currently circumscribed genera.

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