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Int Rev Psychiatry. 2003 Feb-May;15(1-2):50-6.

Nicotine, alcohol and drug dependence, and psychiatric comorbidity--results of a national household survey.

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National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London.


There is a well-recognized relationship between substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders. This relationship has been well documented in a range of population-based studies. This study aims to report on consumption patterns of and dependence on nicotine, alcohol, and non-prescribed drugs and to report on the levels of psychiatric morbidity in these groups. A national household study of psychiatric morbidity was conducted in England and Wales. Psychiatric assessment was based on the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). Measures of nicotine, alcohol and drug use and dependence were obtained. This paper compares the levels of psychiatric morbidity in the non-dependent and the nicotine-, alcohol- and drug-dependent cases. Twelve per cent of the non-dependent population were assessed as having any psychiatric disorder compared with 22% of the nicotine-dependent, 30% of the alcohol-dependent, and 45% of the drug-dependent population. There is a clear relationship between dependence on nicotine, alcohol, and drugs and other psychiatric morbidity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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