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J Am Coll Surg. 2003 May;196(5):737-42.

The development of a clinical trial to determine if watchful waiting is an acceptable alternative to routine herniorrhaphy for patients with minimal or no hernia symptoms.

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Creighton University Department of Surgery, Omaha, NE 68131, USA.



This article describes the development and implementation of a randomized clinical trial designed to answer the question: Is watchful waiting an acceptable alternative to operation for men with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic inguinal hernias?


A clinical trial has been designed to compare watchful waiting and operation for men with an asymptomatic or a relatively asymptomatic inguinal hernia. Men are randomized to watchful waiting or a standard open operation, the Lichtenstein tension-free hernia repair, and are followed for a minimum of 2 years. The target sample size of 753 patients was chosen so that the trial would have power sufficiently high to detect a clinically meaningful difference between treatment groups in either of the two primary outcomes as measured at 2 years: pain or discomfort interfering with normal activities and the physical component summary score of the SF-36 health-related quality-of-life survey. The study was begun in five centers located in both community and academic environments. At 18 months, a sixth site was added and at 28 months, after enrollment of 145 patients, one of the centers was terminated for reasons related to inadequate followup; all data from this center were deleted. As a routine measure, an independent experienced trial manager audited all clinical sites.


Enrollment of patients began in January 2000 and will end on December 31, 2002. As of November 1, 2002, 637 patients had been randomized, 85% of the target enrollment. An additional 2,115 patients were screened but not randomized, yielding a recruitment rate of 23.1%. Analysis and publication of the results of the study will take place on completion of the minimum 2-year followup period for all patients.


A trial to compare the outcomes of watchful waiting and operation for management of inguinal hernias in men is needed to provide data to surgeons and to patients that can aid in choice of treatment. A description of the design of such a trial is presented.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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