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Biochemistry. 2003 May 20;42(19):5640-8.

Calcium-modulated guanylate cyclase transduction machinery in the photoreceptor--bipolar synaptic region.

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The Unit of Regulatory and Molecular Biology, Department of Cell Biology, New Jersey Medical School and School of Osteopathic Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, New Jersey 08084, USA.


Rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC) transduction system is a central component of the Ca(2+)-sensitive phototransduction machinery. The system is composed of two parts: Ca(2+) sensor guanylate cyclase activating protein (GCAP) and ROS-GC. GCAP senses Ca(2+) impulses and inhibits the cyclase. This operational feature of the cyclase is considered to be unique and exclusive in the phototransduction machinery. A combination of reconstitution, peptide competition, cross-linking, and immunocytochemical studies has been used in this study to show that the GCAP1/ROS-GC1 transduction system also exists in the photoreceptor synaptic (presynaptic) termini. Thus, the presence of this system and its linkage is not unique to the phototransduction machinery. A recent study has demonstrated that the photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic region also contains a Ca(2+)-stimulated ROS-GC1 transduction system [Duda, T., et al. (2002) EMBO J. 21, 2547-2556]. In this case, S100beta senses Ca(2+) and stimulates the cyclase. The inhibitory and stimulatory Ca(2+)-modulated ROS-GC1 sites are distinct. These findings allow the formation of a new topographic model of ROS-GC1 transduction. In this model, the catalytic module of ROS-GC1 at its opposite ends is flanked by GCAP1 and S100beta modules. GCAP1 senses the Ca(2+) impulse and inhibits the catalytic module; S100beta senses the impulse and stimulates the catalytic module. Thus, ROS-GC1 acts as a bimodal Ca(2+) signal transduction switch in the photoreceptor bipolar synapse.

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