Send to

Choose Destination
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 May;88(5):2003-8.

X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome: clinical heterogeneity in three siblings carrying an intragenic deletion of the KAL-1 gene.

Author information

Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Hôpital Necker, 75743 Paris Cedex 15, France.


Kallmann syndrome (KS) is characterized by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. The gene underlying the X chromosome-linked form of the disease, KAL-1, consists of 14 coding exons. It encodes a glycoprotein, anosmin-1, which is involved in the embryonic migration of GnRH-synthesizing neurons and the differentiation of the olfactory bulbs. We describe herein the clinical heterogeneity in three affected brothers who carry a large deletion (exons 3-13) in KAL-1. All three had a history of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with delayed puberty. Although brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hypoplastic olfactory bulbs in the three siblings, variable degrees of anosmia/hyposmia were shown by olfactometry. In addition, these brothers had different phenotypic anomalies, i.e. unilateral renal aplasia (siblings B and C), high-arched palate (sibling A), brachymetacarpia (sibling A), mirror movements (siblings A and B), and abnormal eye movements (sibling C). Last but not least, sibling A suffered from a severe congenital hearing impairment, a feature that had been reported in KS but had not yet been ascribed unambiguously to the X-linked form of the disease. The variable phenotype, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in this family further emphasizes the role of putative modifier genes, and/or epigenetic factors, in the expressivity of the X-linked KS.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center