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Vet Parasitol. 2003 May 1;113(3-4):289-320.

Exotic ticks introduced into the United States on imported reptiles from 1962 to 2001 and their potential roles in international dissemination of diseases.

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Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110880, Gainesville, FL 32611-0880, USA.


Since 1962, a total of 29 species of exotic ticks have been introduced into the United States on imported reptiles, with 17 species from the genus Amblyomma, 11 from the genus Aponomma and one from the genus Hyalomma. In the absence of measures to control introduction of these importations, some exotic tick species will develop breeding colonies and become established as indigenous species and some tickborne diseases may be introduced to wreak havoc among susceptible native populations. However, formulation of risk assessments and rational control measures have been hampered by a lack of knowledge of these exotic ticks, with much of the available data published in older and relatively obscure publications. This report is an attempt to collate information for all 29 exotic tick species, including previously unpublished data from our laboratory, with particular reference to their geographical distribution, hosts, life cycles and vector potential, and to review methods to minimize their global dissemination.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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