Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Immunol. 2003 Jun;4(6):586-93. Epub 2003 Apr 28.

E-proteins directly regulate expression of activation-induced deaminase in mature B cells.

Author information

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.


Activated mature B cells in which the DNA-binding activity of E-proteins has been disrupted fail to undergo class switch recombination. Here we show that activated B cells overexpressing the antagonist helix-loop-helix protein Id3 do not induce expression of the murine Aicda gene encoding activation-induced deaminase (AID). A highly conserved intronic regulatory element in Aicda binds E-proteins both in vitro and in vivo. The transcriptional activity of this element is regulated by E-proteins. We show that the enforced expression of AID in cells overexpressing Id3 partially restores class switch recombination. Taken together, our observations link helix-loop-helix activity and Aicda gene expression in a common pathway, in which E-protein activity is required for the efficient induction of Aicda transcription.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group
Loading ...
Support Center