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Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004 Mar;286(3):L494-501. Epub 2003 Apr 25.

Eosinophils and monocytes produce pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine, which activates cultured monocytes/macrophages.

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Div. of Cancer Biology, La Jolla Inst. for Molecular Medicine, 4570 Executive Dr., #100, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.


Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC/CCL18) belongs to the family of CC chemokines and shares 61% sequence identity with monocyte inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha. Produced by dendritic cells and macrophages primarily in the lung, PARC is known to be chemotactic for T cells. Because PARC's biological function is largely unknown, we screened various leukocyte populations for PARC expression and for response to PARC, with the idea that the cellular source may link PARC to disease states in which it may be involved. Here we report that eosinophils obtained from individuals with mild eosinophilia express PARC as assessed by RT-PCR on eosinophil RNA. The eosinophil preparations were free of monocytes, a known source of PARC, and no RT-PCR product was obtained from neutrophils. Furthermore, PARC protein was detected by ELISA in the supernatants of eosinophils from seven of nine donors and in higher concentration in the supernatants of monocytes on day 1 of culture. Purified recombinant PARC activated human monocytes/macrophages kept in culture for 3-4 days but not freshly isolated monocytes. The threshold dose for Ca(2+) mobilization as determined fluorometrically in indo 1-AM-labeled monocytes was 5 nM; maximal response was reached with approximately 50 nM PARC. PARC was chemotactic for these cultured monocytes and caused actin polymerization determined by FITC-phalloidin binding and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. In contrast, PARC activated neither neutrophils nor eosinophils. Eosinophil production of PARC, its chemotactic effect on monocytes and lymphocytes, and PARC's previously described localization to the lung suggest that this chemokine might play a role in pulmonary leukocyte trafficking.

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