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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 May;44(5):2047-58.

Vitamin C metabolomic mapping in the lens with 6-deoxy-6-fluoro-ascorbic acid and high-resolution 19F-NMR spectroscopy.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Metabolomics, or metabolic profiling, is an emerging discipline geared to providing information on a large number of metabolites, as a complement to genomics and proteomics. In the current study, a fluorine-labeled derivative of ascorbic acid (F-ASA), a major antioxidant- and UV-trapping molecule in the aqueous humor and the lens, was used to investigate the extent to which the lens accumulates potentially toxic degradation products of vitamin C.

METHODS:

Human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) and rat lenses were exposed to hyperglycemic or oxidative stress in vitro or in vivo and probed for accumulation of F-ASA, fluoro-dehydroascorbate (F-DHA), fluoro-2,3-diketogulonate (F-DKG), and their degradation products in protein-free extracts, by proton-decoupled 750-MHz (19)F-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

RESULTS:

F-ASA and F-DHA were taken up into HLE B-3 cells by an Na(+)-dependent transporter. Their uptake was unexpectedly only slightly affected by hyperglycemia in vitro, unless glutathione was severely depleted. Glycemic stress catalyzed oxidation of F-ASA into a single novel F-compound at -212.4 ppm, whereas F-DHA and F-DKG were the major degradation products observed after GSH depletion. In contrast, F-ASA uptake was markedly suppressed in diabetic cataractous rat lenses, which accumulated both the F-DHA and the -212.4-ppm compound. In an unexpected finding, the latter formed only from F-ASA and not F-DHA or F-DKG, suggesting a novel pathway of in vivo F-ASA degradation. Both the cells and the intact rat and human lenses were permeable to several advanced F-ASA and F-DHA degradation products, except F-DKG. The unknown compound at -212.4 ppm was the only F-ASA degradation product that spontaneously formed in rabbit aqueous humor upon incubation with F-ASA.

CONCLUSIONS:

These studies suggest the existence of a novel ascorbic-acid-degradation pathway in the lens and aqueous humor that is influenced by the nature of the oxidant stress. Under similar culture conditions, intact lenses are more prone to hyperglycemia-mediated oxidant stress than are lens epithelial cells, but both are permeable to various F-ASA degradation products, the structure and biological roles of which remain to be established.

PMID:
12714643
DOI:
10.1167/iovs.02-0575
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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