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Drugs Aging. 2003;20(6):465-76; discussion 477-8.


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  • 1Adis International Limited, Auckland, New Zealand.


Memantine, an uncompetitive antagonist with moderate affinity for NMDA receptors, demonstrates voltage-dependency and relatively fast on/off receptor kinetics. Memantine 20 mg/day significantly slowed the rate of deterioration in outpatients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease in a 28-week US randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study. Memantine 10 mg/day improved measures of dementia in care-dependent inpatients with Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a 12-week randomised, double-blind study. Significantly more memantine than placebo recipients were responders according to Clinical Global Impression of Change scores and the Behavioural Rating Scale for Geriatric Patients Care Dependence subscale. Memantine 20 mg/day significantly improved cognition-related outcomes (cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale) in patients with vascular dementia in two 28-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials. No statistically significant between-group difference was seen in other primary endpoints. Adverse events (incidence in memantine recipients greater than in placebo recipients) occurring in patients with moderately severe to severe dementia included diarrhoea, insomnia, dizziness, headache and hallucination.

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