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Exp Parasitol. 2002 Oct;102(2):99-108.

Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. japonicum: early events associated with penetration and migration of schistosomula through human skin.

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Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Rockford, IL 61107, USA.


Migratory pattern of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. japonicum through human skin were analyzed in skin organ cultures. These studies showed that the schistosomula of S. mansoni and S. haematobium has similar migratory patterns through human skin. During the first 24h after infection nearly 90% of S. mansoni and S. haematobium schistosomula were present only in the epidermis. Majority of the schistosomula were found in the dermis only after 48h and they appear to reach the dermal vessels around 72h after infection. Migratory pattern of S. japonicum on the other hand was significantly different from the other two species in that over 90% of the parasites had already reached the dermis within the first 24h and schistosomula were present in the dermal vessels within 2h after infection. Analysis of the cytokine pattern at 8h after infection by a macro gene array and RT-PCR analysis showed that out of 24 different cytokines analyzed only IL-1ra, IL-10, and TNF-alpha were increased in the human skin following infections with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, whereas, after infection with S. japonicum there was significant increases in IL-1beta, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, and TNF-alpha. Immunohistochemical analysis of epidermal sheets showed focal accumulation of HLA-DR(+) cells in areas where schistosomula of S. mansoni had entered the human skin.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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