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Biosens Bioelectron. 2003 May;18(5-6):503-10.

Two-photon fluorescence excitation of macroscopic areas on planar waveguides.

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Zeptosens AG, Benkenstrasse 254, CH-4108, Witterswil, Switzerland.


In this paper, we report the first successful demonstration, to our knowledge, of two-photon fluorescence excitation (TPFE) using planar thin-film waveguide structures of macroscopic excitation dimensions (square millimeters to square centimeters in size). The high intensity of excitation light required for TPFE is available not only at a single focus point but along the whole trace of the beam guided in the waveguide structure. Line profiles of the fluorescence excited by TPFE show excellent correlation with the geometry of the launched laser beams. A clear second-order dependence of the fluorescence intensity on the excitation intensity confirms the two-photon character of fluorescence generation. Spectra of the emission generated by one-photon excitation and by two-photon excitation show only minor differences.

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