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Magn Reson Med. 2003 May;49(5):817-21.

Proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging with highly effective outer volume suppression using combined presaturation and spatially selective echo dephasing.

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Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.


A highly effective outer volume suppression (OVS) technique, termed spatially selective echo dephasing (SSED), which employs gradient dephasing of spatially selective spin echoes, is introduced. SSED, which is relatively insensitive to T(1) dispersion among lipid signals and B(1) inhomogeneity, was integrated with very high spatial resolution 2D proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) to assess residual lipid bleeding into cortical regions in the human brain. The method was optimized to minimize signal refocusing of secondary spin-echoes in areas of overlapping suppression slices. A comparison of spatial presaturation with single or double SSED, and with combined presaturation and SSED shows that the latter method has superior performance with spatially uniform lipid suppression factors in excess of 70. Metabolite mapping (choline, creatine, and NAA) with a 64 x 64 spatial matrix and 0.3 cm(3) voxels in close proximity to peripheral lipid regions was demonstrated at 1.5 T with a scan time of 32 min using the standard head coil.

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